Please be advised that the journal will be unavailable for 30 minutes on Monday, July 26, 2021, starting at 9:30 AM EST. This downtime is scheduled for necessary upgrades. We apologize for the inconvenience that this may cause.

Maria Kokoszyńska: Between the Lvov-Warsaw School and the Vienna Circle


  • Anna Brożek University of Warsaw



Maria Kokoszyńska-Lutmanowa (1905–1981) was one of the most outstanding female representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School. After achieving her PhD in philosophy under Kazimierz Twardowski’s supervision, she was Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz’s assistant. She was also influenced by Alfred Tarski whose results in semantics she analyzed and popularized. After World War II, she got the chair of logic in University of Wrocław and she organized studies in logic in this academic center.

In the 1930s, Kokoszyńska kept in contact with members of the Vienna Circle and became a kind of connecting factor between Polish logicians and the Viennese group. In Poland, she presented the views of members of the Vienna Circle. In Vienna, she emphasized the results of her Polish colleagues.

In the present paper, some of Kokoszyńska’s results connected with the matters discussed in the Vienna Circle are presented, namely with the problem of metaphysics, the status of logic and the idea of unity of science.


Author Biography

Anna Brożek, University of Warsaw



A. Kokoszyńska’s works cited in this paper

Kokoszyńska, Maria, 1932. ‘Z semantyki funkcji zdaniowych [On the Semantics of Propositional Functions].’ Księga Pamiątkowa Polskiego Towarzystwa Filozoficznego we Lwowie, 12 Feb. 1904 – 12 Feb. 1929, pp. 312-313. Lwów: PTF.

———, 1934a. Letter to Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz, Kazimierz Twardowski et al., 23 November 1934, Kazimierz Twardowski’s Archives, Warsaw. Sign. Akt-K-02-1-16-004.

———, 1934b. Letter to Kazimierz Twardowski, 14 December 1934, Kazimierz Twardowski’s Archives, Warsaw, Sign. Akt-K-02-1-16-006.

———, 1935a. Letter to Kazimierz Twardowski, 18 June 1935, Kazimierz Twardowski’s Archives, Warsaw, Sign. Akt-K-02-1-16-012.

———, 1935b. Letter to Kazimierz Twardowski, 22 July 1935, Kazimierz Twardowski’s Archives, Warsaw, Sign. Akt-K-02-1-16-014.

———, 1935c. Letter to Kazimierz Twardowski, 22 August 1935, Kazimierz Twardowski’s Archives, Warsaw, Sign. Akt-K-02-1-16-018.

———, 1936a. ‘Logiczna składnia j ęzyka, semantyka i logika wiedzy [Logical Syntax of Language, Semantics and Logic of Knowledge].’ Przegląd Filozoficzny 39: 38–49.

———, 1936b. ‘Syntax, Semantik und Wissenschaftslogik.’ Actes du Congrès International de Philosophie Scientifique 3: 9–14.

———, 1936c. ‘Über den absoluten Wahrheitsbegriff und einige andere semantische Begriffe.’ Erkenntnis 6: 143–65.

———, 1937a. ‘Filozofia nauki w Kole Wiedeńskim [Philosophy of Science in the Vienna Circle].’ Kwartalnik Filozoficzny 13: 151–65, 181–94.

———, 1937b. ‘Sur les éléments métaphysiques et empiriques dans la science.’ In Travaux du IXème Congrès International de Philosophie. Congrès Descartes vol. 4, pp. 108–17. Paris: Hermann et Cie.

———, 1938a. ‘W sprawie walki z metafizyką [On a Fight Against Metaphysics].’ Przegląd Filozoficzny 41: 9–24.

———, 1938b. ‘Bemerkungen über der Einheitswissenschaft.’ Erkenntnis 7: 325–35.

———, 1948a. ‘What Means “Relativity of Truth”?’ Studia Philosophica 3: 167–76.

———, 1951. ‘A Refutation of the Relativism of Truth.’ Studia Philosophica 4, 93–149.

———, 1957a. ‘O dobrej i złej indukcji [On Good and Bad Induction].’ Studia Logica 5: 43–70. (Includes a summary in English.)

———, 1960a. ‘O stosowalności metody dedukcyjnej w naukach niededukcyjnych [On the Applicability of the Deductive Method in Non-Deductive Sciences].’ Sprawozdania Wrocławskiego Towarzystwa Naukowego, Series A, vol. XV: 45–49.

———, 1962. ‘O dwojakim rozumieniu uzasadniania dedukcyjnego [Two Concepts of Deductive Justification].’ Studia Logica 13: 177–96.

———, 1963a. ‘O dedukcji [On Deduction].’ Studia Filozoficzne 1: 77–86. (Includes a summary in English.)

———, 1967a. ‘W sprawie różnicy mi ędzy naukami dedukcyjnymi a niededukcyjnymi [On the Issue of the Difference between Deductive and Non-Deductive Sciences].’ In Fragmenty filozoficzne, 3rd series, edited by Tadeusz Czeżowski et al., pp. 43–74. Warsaw: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (PWN).

———, 1967b. ‘W sprawie koncepcji nauk dedukcyjnych [About the Conception of Deductive Sciences].’ Studia Filozoficzne 1: 57–63.

———, 1969. ‘Znaczenie syntaktyczne i znaczenie semantyczne wyrażeń j ęzykowych [Syntactic and Semantic Meanings of Language Expressions].’ In Rozprawy filozoficzne, pp. 143–75. Toruń: Prace Wydziału Filologiczno-Filozoficznego TNT.

———, 1973a. ‘Metodologiczne problemy integracji nauk [Methodological Problems of Integration of Sciences].’ Studia Filozoficzne 4: 47–56.

B. Other works by Kokoszyńska published in English, French, and German

Kokoszyńska, Maria, 1948b. ‘On a Certain Condition of Semantic Theory of Knowledge.’ In Przeł ęcki and Wójcicki (1977), pp. 189–99. Summary: ‘On a Certain Condition of a Semantical Theory of Science.’ In Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Philosophy (Amsterdam, 11–18 August 1948), vol. I, fasc. II, pp. 773–75. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1949.

———, 1957b. ‘Criticism of Some Views on the Relationship Between Logic and Dialectics.’ Studia Filozoficzne. The Summaries of the Articles. Vols. I–III, pp. 41–43. Warsaw: PWN.

———, 1960b. ‘Deduction as a Method of Proof.’ In Atti del XII Congresso Internazionale di Filozofia (Venice, 12–18 September 1958), vol. V., Lògica, gnoseologia, filosofia della scienza, filozofia del liguaggio, pp. 271–78 Florence: Sansoni Editore.

———, 1963b. ‘On Deduction.’ In The Foundations of Statements and Decisions, edited by Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz, pp. 205–10. Warsaw: PWN, 1965.

———, 1967c. ‘A Conception of the Deductive Sciences.’ Analele Universitaţii Bucurestţi. Series: Acta Logica X: 105–12. Revised and supplemented version: Studia Filozoficzne. Selected articles, vol. IV, pp. 111–17. Warsaw: PWN, 1970.

———, 1967d. ‘On the Difference Between Deductive and Non-Deductive Science.’ In Przełęcki and Wójcicki (1977), pp. 201–31.

———, 1968. ‘Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz.’ In Contemporary Philosophy: A Survey, vol. I, edited by Raymond Klibansky, Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics, pp. 202–08. Florence: La Nuova Italia Editrice.

———, 1973b. ‘Toward a General Theory of Definition.’ Abstracts of the XVth World Congress of Philosophy (Varna, 17–22 September 1973), abstract no. 640. Varna.

———, 1976. ‘Definitionen in engeren und weiteren Sinne.’ Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 14: 1478–93.

C. Other works cited in this paper

Ajdukiewicz, Kazimierz, 1934. ‘Sprache und Sinn.’ Erkenntnis 4: 100–38.

———, 1935. ‘Der logistische Antiirrationalismus in Polen.’ Erkenntnis 5: 151–64.

Blegvad, Mogens, 1989. ‘Warsaw, Vienna, Copenhagen.’ In Szaniawski (1989), pp. 1–8.

Bocheński, Józef Maria, 1989. ‘Cracow Circle.’ In Szaniawski (1989), pp. 9–18.

Brożek, Anna, Alicja Chybińska, Jacek Jadacki, and Jan Woleński, eds., 2015. Tradition of the Lvov-Warsaw School: Ideas and Continuations. Leiden and Boston: Brill–Rodopi.

Brożek, Anna, Friedrich Stadler and Jan Woleński, eds., 2017. The Significance of the Lvov-Warsaw School in European Culture. Vienna Circle Yearbook, Springer (forthcoming).

Cat, Jordi, 2013. ‘The Unity of Science.’ The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, accessed 19 January 2017.

Carnap, Rudolf, 1908–1935. Diaries. Transcribed by Brigitta Arden and Brigitte Parakenings., accessed 19 January 2017.

———, 1931. ‘Überwindung der Metaphysik durch logische Analyse der Sprache.’ Erkenntnis 2: 219–41. English translation with additional notes: ‘The Elimination of Metaphysics Through Logical Analysis of Language’, translated by A. Pap. In Logical Positivism, edited by A. J. Ayer, pp. 60–81. New York: The Free Press, 1959.

———, 1935. Letter to Maria Kokoszyńska from 19 June 1935. University of Pittsburgh Libraries, Special Collections Departments, Sign. 088-57-16.

———, 1963. ‘Intellectual Autobiography.’ In The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap, edited by P. A. Schilpp, pp. 3–86. La Salle: Open Court.

Coniglione, Francesco, Robert Poli, and Jan Woleński, eds., 1993. Polish Scientific Philosophy. The Lvov-Warsaw School. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Creath, Richard, 1996. ‘Unity of Science.’ In The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Contexts, and Power, edited by Peter Galison and David J. Stump, pp. 158–69. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Dąmbska, Izydora, 2016. Knowledge, Language and Silence. Leiden and Boston: Brill–Rodopi.

Feferman, Anita Burdman, 1999. ‘How the Unity of Science Saved Alfred Tarski.’ In Alfred Tarski and the Vienna Circle, edited by Jan Woleński and Eckehart Köhler, pp. 43–52. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Feferman, Anita Burdman and Solomon Feferman, 2004. Alfred Tarski: Life and Logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hahn, Hans, Otto Neurath and Rudolf Carnap, 1929. Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung: Der Wiener Kreis. Vienna: Verlag. English translation in Empiricism and Sociology, edited by M. Neurath and R. S. Cohen, pp. 299–318. Dordrect and Boston: D. Reidel.

Jadacki, Jacek, 2002. Introduction to Maria Kokoszyńska, ‘Co to znaczy “relatywność prawdy”? [What Means “Relativity of Truth”?].’ Filozofia Nauki 3: 149–58.

———, 2009. Polish Analytical Philosophy. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Semper.

Kijania-Placek, Katarzyna and Jan Woleński, eds., 1998. The Lvov-Warsaw School and Contemporary Philosophy. Dordrecht, Boston and London: Kluwer.

Kotarbiński, Tadeusz, 1929. Elementy teorii poznania, logiki formalnej i metodologii nauk. Lwów: Ossolineum. Published in English as: Gnosiology: The Scientific Approach to the Theory of Knowledge, trans. by O. Wojtasiewicz. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1966.

Łukasiewicz, Jan, 1912. ‘O twórczości w nauce [On creativity in science].’ In Księga pamiątkowa ku uczczeniu 250-tej rocznicy założenia Uniwersytetu Lwowskiego przez króla Jana Kazimierza r. 1661, vol. 1. Lwów: Uniwersytet Lwowski.

———, 1936. ‘Logistyka a filozofia [Logistic and Philosophy].’ Przegląd Filozoficzny 39: 115–31.

Nagel, Ernest, 1936. ‘Impressions and Appraisals of Analytic Philosophy in Europe.’ Journal of Philosophy 33: 5–24.

Neurath, Otto, 1938. ‘Zu den Vorträgen von Black, Kokoszyńska, Williams.’ Erkenntnis 7: 371–74.

Przełęcki, Marian and Ryszard Wójcicki, eds., 1977. Twenty-Five Years of Logical Methodology in Poland. Warsaw and Dordrecht: PWN–Reidel.

Rojszczak, Artur, 1998. Truth-bearers from Twardowski to Tarski. In Kijania-Placek and Woleński (1998), pp. 73–84.

Simons, Peter, 2017. ‘Logical Philosophy, Anti-Irrationalism, and Gender Equality: Three Positives of the Lvov-Warsaw Enlightenment.’ In Brożek, Stadler and Woleński (2017).

Szaniawski, Klemens, ed., 1989. The Vienna Circle and the Lvov-Warsaw School. Dordrecht, Boston and London: Kluwer.

Suchmiel, Jadwiga, 2000. Działalność naukowa kobiet w Uniwersytecie we Lwowie do roku 1939. Cz ęstochowa: Wydawnictwo WSP.

Tałasiewicz, Mieszko, 2001. ‘Maria Kokoszyńska-Lutmanowa: Methodology, Semantics, Truth.’ In Polish Philosophers of Science and Nature in the 20th century, edited by Władysław Krajewski, pp. 129–33. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi.

Twardowski, Kazimierz, 1904. ‘Przemówienie na otwarciu Polskiego Towarzystwa Filozoficznego we Lwowie [Speech at the Opening of the Polish Philosophical Society in Lvov].’ Przegląd Filozoficzny 7: 239–43.

———, 1919. ‘O jasnym i niejasnym stylu filozoficznym [On Clear amd Unclear Philosophical Style].’ Ruch Filozoficzny 5: 25–27. English translation in On Actions, Products and Other Topics in Philosophy, edited by by Johannes Brandl and Jan Woleński, pp. 257–59. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 1998.

———, 1999. Dzienniki [ Diaries], vols. 1–2, edited by Ryszard Jadczak. Toruń: Adam Marszałek

Uebel, Thomas, 2016. ‘Vienna Circle.’ The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, accessed 19 January 2017.

van der Schaar, Maria, 2015. Kazimierz Twardowski: A Grammar for Philosophy. Leiden and Boston: Brill–Rodopi.

———, 2017. ‘Metaphysics and the Logical Analysis of “Nothing”.’ In Brożek, Stadler and Woleński (2017).

Woleński, Jan, 1989a. Logic and Philosophy in the Lvov-Warsaw School. Dordrecht, Boston and London: Kluwer.

———, 1989b. ‘The Lvov-Warsaw School and the Vienna Circle.’ In Szaniawski (1989), pp. 443–53.

———, 2015. ‘Lvov-Warsaw School.’ The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, accessed 19 January 2017.

Wohlsteller, Albert, 1940. Reviews of Maria Kokoszyńska, ‘Bemerkungen über die Einheitswissenschaft’, Otto Neurath, ‘Zu den Vorträgen von Black, Kokoszyńska, Williams’, and Arne Naess, ‘Zum Vortrag von Kokoszyńska über Einheitswissenschaft’. The Journal of Symbolic Logic 5: 24–25.

D. Other works addressing Kokoszyńska

Betti, Arianna, 2008. ‘Polish Axiomatics and Its Truth: On Tarski’s Leśniewskian Background and the Ajdukiewicz Connection.’ In Patterson (2008), pp. 44–71.

Gumański, Leon, 1999. To Be or Not to Be? Is That the Question? – and Other Studies in Ontology, Epistemology and Logic. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi.

Hempel, C. G., 1949. Review of Maria Kokoszyńska, ‘On a Certain Condition of a Semantical Theory of Science.’ The Journal of Symbolic Logic 14: 247–48.

———, 1953. Review of Maria Kokoszyńska, ‘What Means “Relativity of Truth”?’ and ‘A Refutation of the Relativism of Truth.’ The Journal of Symbolic Logic 18: 170–71.

———, 2000. Selected Philosophical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mancosu, Paul, 2008. ‘Tarski, Neurath and Kokoszyńska on the Semantic Conception of Truth’. In Patterson (2008), pp. 192–224.

McFarland, Andrew, Joanna McFarland, and James T. Smith, eds. 2014. Alfred Tarski. Early Work in Poland – Geometry and Teaching. New York: Birkhäuser.

Mehlberg, Henryk (1938). Review of Maria Kokoszyńska, ‘Über den absoluten Wahrheitsbegriff und einige andere semantische Begriffe’, ‘Logiczna składnia j ęzyka, semantyka i logika wiedzy [Logical Sytax of Language, Semantics and the Logic of Knowledge].’ The Journal of Symbolic Logic 3: 45.

Patterson, Douglas, ed., 2008. New Essays on Tarski and Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Peregrin, Jaroslav, ed., 1999. Truth and Its Nature (if Any). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Popper, Karl, 2005. Unended Quest: An Intellectual Autobiography. London and New York: Routledge.

Smith, Barry, 1971. Review of Maria Kokoszyńska, ‘Deduction as a Method of Proof.’ The Journal of Symbolic Logic 36: 551.

Sobociński, Bolesław, 1950. Review of Maria Kokoszyńska, ‘O pewnym warunku semantycznej teorii wiedzy [On a Certain Condition of Semantic Theory of Kwnoledge].’ The Journal of Symbolic Logic 15: 281.

Szumilewicz-Lachman, Irena, 1994. Zygmunt Zawirski: His Life and Work – With Selected Writings on Time, Logic & the Methodology of Science. Dordrecht, Boston and London: Kluwer.

Uebel, Thomas E., 1992. Overcoming Logical Positivism from Within: The Emergence of Neurath’s Naturalism in the Vienna Circle’s Protocol Sentence Debate. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi.